Germany is a large Central European country bordered by the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Denmark, as well as both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The German climate is a moderate maritime climate, which means its summers are warm and its winters are mild. Even on the coast, the weather is rarely very harsh. Highs of around 25 degrees Celsius are the norm in the summer, with temperatures rarely dipping below 0 degrees in the winter.
Germany is known for many things: the city of Munich for its Oktoberfest; the beer gardens of Bavaria; the beautiful Rhine Valley, dotted with wineries and centuries-old castles. Germany is also known for its association with the Brothers Grimm, whose fairytale collections are found in homes all over the world. Germany’s fairytale links can be seen everywhere, particularly in the scenic route called the Romantic Road, located in southern Germany. Along this route is the spectacular Neuschwanstein, which inspired the design of Disney’s logo.
Germany’s efficiency is also legendary, and it’s a trademark feature that is showcased in the country’s infrastructure. Its public transport system, for example, includes a bus network that extends all over the country, as well as extensive rapid-transit railway networks in its largest cities, with a degree of punctuality that residents of other countries might consider eerie.
A region called Germania is known to have existed as early as 100 CE, but even before then the Roman Empire had already settled tribes in what is now modern Germany. After the fall of the Roman Empire, many Germanic tribes of all sizes were united by the Holy Roman Empire; however, Germany did not become a unified country until much later, in 1871.
Germany had fractious relationships with neighbouring countries, and its choice of allies in World War I led to further problems. The immensity of Germany’s losses in World War I contributed heavily to the developments that led to World War II, particularly as Adolf Hitler himself was determined that Germany would never again be brought so low.
After the atrocities and loss of life that defined World War II, Germany’s surrender led to its division into East and West territories, a major alteration that was not revised until Germany regained its full independence and was able to reunify in 1990.
German’s flora and fauna is unique only in the fact that there are no unique species here—all of Germany’s plants and animals are found elsewhere in Europe. What’s unique about Germany is that the country’s national parks and gardens run many conservation programmes that help preserve and grow a steadily increasing array of plants and animals.
Another distinctive natural feature is Germany’s enormous forests: around 30% of the country is covered in forestland, with around 50 tree species, including oaks and maples, firs and pines, as well as fruit and nut trees, and ginkgo and cedar. The forests are home to species of game, including wild boar, deer, and pheasants, as well as all manner of woodland and forest creatures, such as badgers, groundhogs, and wildcats. In the alpine forests more exotic animals such as ibex and lynx can be found.
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